Zero order device

often abbreviated to ZOD, these devices comprise gratings less than the wavelength of visible light (below 400 nanometres). These devices can be produced by embossing and display unique colour effects which are dependent on the plane of rotation of the device.

Volume hologram

otherwise known as a Bragg diffraction hologram, is where the thickness of the recording material is much larger than the wavelength of the light used for recording. The advantage of volume over surface relief holograms is the gain in image quality.

Virtual Reality (VR)

a technology that immerses the viewer into a computer-generated simulation of a three-dimensional scene and allows them to interact with it using a digital interface. VR devices often use the term ‘hologram’ to describe the heightened sense of realism they...

Viewing angle

the angle at the surface of a hologram which defines the limits of the space relative to the hologram in which an image can be observed with acceptable visual performance.

Transmission hologram

can be seen by light passing through the material containing the holographic image. Ironically, all metallised, embossed holograms are transmission holograms but are conveniently seen by reflected light because the incident light passes through the diffractive grating...